Finnish Markka (1860-2002). During the autonomy Finland also had its own army, postal service and a limited government in Helsinki.

Finnish Markka During the autonomy Finland also had its own army, postal service and a limited government in Helsinki.

21.	In 1917, in the midst of October Revolution in Russia, Finland declares independence. The Finnish maiden by an unknown artist, 1906

In in the midst of October Revolution in Russia, Finland declares independence. The Finnish maiden by an unknown artist, 1906

The golden era of Finnish art (1880-1914). Kalevala, the national epic inspires Finnish artists. Lemminkäisen äiti (Mother of Lemminkäinen) by Akseli Gallen-Kallela.

Akseli Gallen-Kallela, Lemminkainen's Mother (based on the Finnish National epic Kalevala).

General strike in Finland in 1905. Russification ends. Picture of protesters gathered in town of Nurmes.

General strike in Finland in Russification ends. Picture of protesters gathered in town of Nurmes.

Russification begins in 1899, Finland lost part of its autonomy. Russian policemen looking for forbidden books in 1905.

Russification begins in Finland lost part of its autonomy. Russian policemen looking for forbidden books in Finland

Due to poor war preparations, the Russians conquered Finland in 1809. A painting about one of the few Swedish-Finnish victories, Battle of Koljovirta

Due to poor war preparations, the Russians conquered Finland in A painting about one of the few Swedish-Finnish victories, Battle of Koljovirta

Eugen Schauman shoots the Russian general governor Nikolai Bobrikov in 1904.

Eugen Schauman shoots the Russian general governor Nikolai Bobrikov in

In 1905, first in the world, Finnish men and women received the right to vote and to  run for parliament.

In 1905, first in the world, Finnish men and women received the right to vote and to run for parliament.

Finland was granted autonomy in 1809, but few improvements were made during the time of conservative Nicholaus I (1825-1855).

Finland was granted autonomy in but few improvements were made during the time of conservative Nicholaus I

Freedom of profession was declared in 1879. A painting by Akseli Gallen-Kallela from 1903.

Portrait - Painting - People building a house in Finland 1903

Time of russification was inspirational for Finnish artists. A painting by Edvard Isto: hyökkäys (“attack”) from 1899.

217631 / Art Edvard Isto, or Eetu Isto - ATTACK 1899 , Russian eagle attacking the Finnish Maiden , Finland Finlande

The country was very divided and went through a short and bloody civil war in 1918. Orphan children of the losing red side of the war

The country was very divided and went through a short and bloody civil war in Orphan children of the losing red side of the war

Diet of Porvoo 1809 and Emperor Alexander I. The birth of Finnish nation in its pre-modern form.

Diet of Porvoo 1809 and Emperor Alexander I. The birth of Finnish nation in its pre-modern form.

Helsinki was declared capital in 1812 to distance the Finns from the Swedes. The cathedral was finished in the 1850’s.

Helsinki was declared capital in 1812 to distance the Finns from the Swedes. The cathedral was finished in the

The former capital, Turku, burns almost completely in 1827.

The former capital, Turku, burns almost completely in Finland

A statue of Alexander II still stands in Helsinki.  His time was very good for Finnish development. Finland starts to industrialize.

A statue of Alexander II still stands in Helsinki. His time was very good for Finnish development. Finland starts to industrialize.

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