The 700-hundred-year Swedish rule ends in 1809. A map from 1747
Due to poor war preparations, the Russians conquered Finland in 1809. A painting about one of the few Swedish-Finnish victories, Battle of Koljovirta
The mighty sea fortress of Suomenlinna surrenders to the Russians only after a month of siege
Diet of Porvoo 1809 and Emperor Alexander I. The birth of Finnish nation in its pre-modern form.
Helsinki was declared capital in 1812 to distance the Finns from the Swedes. The cathedral was finished in the 1850’s.
The former capital, Turku, burns almost completely in 1827.
Finland was granted autonomy in 1809, but few improvements were made during the time of conservative Nicholaus I (1825-1855).
The golden era of Finnish art (1880-1914). Kalevala, the national epic inspires Finnish artists. Lemminkäisen äiti (Mother of Lemminkäinen) by Akseli Gallen-Kallela.
The Finnish national anthem: ”Maamme” by J.L.Runeberg and F.Pacius. First sung in 1848. National awakening began in the mid 1800s
Finnish Markka (1860-2002). During the autonomy Finland also had its own army, postal service and a limited government in Helsinki.