Nobel Prize Winners
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John Cockcroft - Facts
Sir John Douglas Cockcroft 1951 Born: 27 May 1897, Todmorden, United Kingdom Died: 18 September 1967, Cambridge, United Kingdom Affiliation at the time of the award: Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, Berkshire, United Kingdom Prize motivation: "for their pioneer work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles" Field: Accelerator physics, nuclear physics
1982, Kenneth Geddes Wilson . was an American theoretical physicist and a pioneer in leveraging computers for studying particle physics. He was awarded the 1982 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on phase transitions—illuminating the subtle essence of phenomena like melting ice and emerging magnetism.
Klaus von Klitzing - Facts
Klaus von Klitzing 1985 Born: 28 June 1943, Schroda, German-occupied Poland Affiliation at the time of the award: Max-Planck-Institut für Festkörperforschung, Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany Prize motivation: "for the discovery of the quantized Hall effect" Field: Condensed matter physics
1993 Nelson Mandela: 1918-2013: South Africa. In the 1950s he was leader of the youth wing of the African National Congress (ANC). The white government prohibited the ANC in 1960, he organized a military underground movement engaged in sabotage and was arrested and sentenced to life imprisonment. He was the world's most famous political prisoner from 1964 to 1990,. He shared the Peace Prize with President de Klerk who released him because they had agreed on a peaceful transition to majority rule
1993 Frederik Willem de Klerk: 1936-: South Africa. He released Nelson Mandela from prison and the two politicians worked together to bring an end to the policy of racial segregation. He had been a firm upholder of white privilege but realized that apartheid was leading to economic and political bankruptcy. Secret negotiations with Mandela and the ANC liberation movement led to a new constitution with equal voting rights for every population group in the country.
1991 Aung San Suu Kyi: 1945-: Burma (now Myanmar). Since 1988 she has led opposition to the military junta that has ruled Burma since 1962. She was one of the founders of the National League for Democracy (NLD) and called on military leaders to hand over power to a civilian government. In the 1990 election, the NLD won a clear victory but the generals prevented the legislative assembly from convening, continued to arrest members of the opposition and refused to release Suu Kyi from house arrest