Writing materials used by Romas at various times. The hinged book was filled with wax (shown here as a separate item in ready to melt block form), which when hard could be written on with the elegant stylus; pen and inkpot are to hand for more durable writing, along with a lighted lamp, a spare wick and a seal.
“The Instructions of Shuruppak, one of the earliest surviving literary works, is a Sumerian “wisdom” text. This was a genre of literature common in the Ancient Near East intended to teach proper piety, inculcate virtue and preserve community standing.
Six lives have been lost and millions of dollars spent trying to uncover the secrets of what has become known as the Money Pit. Still, no one knows what lies at the bottom, who built it or why. This is the mystery of Oak Island, Nova Scotia.
Artist Study: Windmill at Wijk bij Duurstede by Jacob van Ruisdael-Fine Arts
Slechts van enkele inwoners van Corriovallum kennen we de naam. Een van hen is Lucius Ferenius, een pottenbakker die zijn naam op een van de door hem vervaardigde potten kerfde. Het maken van Romeins aardewerk was een technisch ingewikkeld proces, waarvoor specialistische kennis nodig was. U ziet hier een reconstructie van Romeinse pottenbakkersoven, gebaseerd op een opgraving van een dergelijke oven in het centrum van Heerlen.
This is a rare medieval document as yarlikh, written in old Tatars language (today this language is considered as a dead one), By black and red inks. The yarlikh was granted to Moscow Princes in the 13-15th centuries in the era of Tatars and Mongol raids against Russia. Yarlikhs proved the right of Princes and Priests to govern territories; the copy of yarlikh was written in Russian. Yarlikhs were annulated starting the 15th century.
Perhaps The Oldest European Alphabet -- Circa 800 BCE -- A writing tablet in Greek/Phoenician dating from this time may be the oldest European alphabet, the oldest writing tablet extant, and part of the world's oldest book in codex form.