Phillips - presence of a dependent claim that adds a particular limitation gives rise to a presumption that the limitation in question is not present in the independent claim. sunrace - presumption of claim differentiation especially strong when the limitation in dispute is the only meaningful difference between an independent and dependent claim
harnisch - The test for whether a Markush group is proper is whether all of the compounds in the group have in common a functional utility and a substantial structural feature disclosed as being essential to that utility.
lukach - [T]he description of a single embodiment of broadly described subject matter constitutes a description of the invention for anticipation purposes ... , whereas the same information in a specification might not alone be enough to provide a description of that invention for purposes of adequate disclosure.
pitney bowes www.ptab.us
brown2 - When a claim covers several structures or compositions, either generically or as alternatives, the claim is deemed anticipated if any of the structures or compositions within the scope of the claim is known in the prior art.
griffin - wherein clause limiting if it provides "meaning and purpose to the manipulative steps" of the claim